3.1. Data Analysis
3.1.1. Reliability Indices for the Questionnaire’s Items
To ensure the reliability of the questionnaire, the items were divided into three basic components based on different characteristics for grasping the students’ viewpoints towards the appropriateness and use of the current teaching methods and their relevant consequences for learning procedures. Reliability analysis was carried out on the perceived task values scale comprising 32 items. The results of Cronbach’s alpha revealed the acceptable reliability (α = 0.934) of the questionnaire based on the standardized items analysis in the pilot. Most items appeared to be worthy of retention as their deleting would result in a decrease in alpha, with the exception of items 6 (in traditional methods) and 32 (in modern methods) which would increase alpha to 0.935 as well as item 27 (in complex methods) which would increase the alpha to 0.939. Thus, the removal of the items was considered for the acceptable reliability, and data were gathered via the reliable questionnaire including 32 items.
3.2. Items Data Analysis
3.2.1. Items Data Analysis for the Major Research Question
The major research question was concerned with how differently TCs are taught to English-major students with respect to the different methods of teaching including traditional, complex and modern methods as well as other common methods.
The results presented that all the mentioned methods were common in teaching TCs. Overall, 37% of the participants indicated the use of traditional methods through focusing on the specific field, text analysis, translation equivalents and authoritarian-creative perspectives. Further, according to the students’ viewpoints, 26% of them had experienced translation training via complex methods and utilizing preparatory, basic, and training stages. Besides, modern methods were also common in teaching TCs, since 22% of the responses were devoted to the application of modern methods via specialized text translation training. The rest of the students were trained through other methods of teaching TCs, which consisted of 15% of the total participants.
3.2.2. Items Data Analysis for the Minor Research Question 1
The frequencies and percentages of the students’ responses to the items regarding the first branch of traditional methods of teaching TCs are shown
Table 1. Summary of the Participants’ Responses to Items for Traditional Methods’ Sub-Branch 1
Frequency (%) Q1 1 14 (14.0) 2 66 (66.0) 3 12 (12.0) 4 6 (6.0) 5 2 (2.0) Q2 1 11 (11.0) 2 59 (59.0) 3 16 (16.0) 4 14 (14.0) 5 0 (0) Q3 1 18 (18.0) 2 44 (44.0) 3 26 (26.0) 4 10 (10.0) 5 2 (2.0) Q4 1 11 (11.0) 2 48 (48.0) 3 27 (27.0) 4 9 (9.0) 5 5 (5.0)
As the responses to the first question indicated, 66% of the students believed that the training which began with studying and teaching the vocabularies of a specific field and giving equivalences in the language of translation was useful in the first sub-branch of traditional methods.
Besides, 59% of the participants asserted that since the methods proceeded with the complicated grammatical structures of specialized written texts, the learners were able to acquire translation within specific fields.
To mention the disadvantages of the first sub-branch of traditional methods of teaching, it should be noted that nearly half of the learners (44%) pointed out the unawareness of the learners of the stylistic peculiarities.
Through investigating the second sub-branch of traditional methods, it was revealed that 60% of the participants believed in appropriateness of text analysis that resulted in identifying the features of texts and principal aspects in training languages and translation within higher education context, which may result in intuitive choices in a translation work. On the other hand, based on more than 51% of the participants’ viewpoints, the method was not successful in considering the features of the text as complete substance and required additional drawbacks to the processes in translation. Thus, the features such as type of the text, sphere of application, and recipients might be neglected. Also, according to responses provided for item 8, 58% of the participants expressed their positive viewpoints towards the second sub-branch of traditional methods.
The third sub-branch of traditional methods applied by instructors of TCs consisted of finding all the existing translation equivalents. Via applying this method, finding many equivalents for a single word might be time-consuming, but upon taking into consideration the type of the text, word compatibility, and shades of meaning, the variety of equivalents invariably reduced. Accordingly, the role of text's type was provided as the questionnaires's item, based on which 52% of the participants confirmed its importance.
Finally, almost half of the participants (49%) considered the sub-branch as an extensive practice of active vocabularies in a translation task without much concern to make intuitive choices in translation.
The discussion on the traditional methods was finalized by the responses provided for item 17 aimed at grasping the English-major students’ overall perspectives towards traditional methods of teaching TCs. This item revealed that more than 50% of the participants believed in the inappropriateness of traditional methods of teaching TCs, despite its advantages for beginners and basic stages of translation training.
3.2.3. Items Data Analysis for the Minor Research Question 2
The second minor research question of the study was proposed to find out the English-major students’ perceptions about the complex methods of teaching applied in TCs, for which a total of eight items was provided.
The first item of the questionnaire for the complex methods asked for the participants’ general viewpoints about the helpfulness of methods in teaching translation, in response to which 60% of the responses agreed with the concept as shown in
Table 2. Summary of the Particip ants’ Responses to the First Item in Complex Methods
Frequency (%) Q18 1 9 (9.0) 2 51 (51.0) 3 24 (24.0) 4 14 (14.0) 5 2 (2.0)
As the methods composed of three stages and each stage must be subjected to investigation for the applicability of the methods, some more items were devoted to each stage. The study focused on the preparatory, basic, and training stages in teaching TCs that were pursued in traditional methods to some extent.
According to the students’ responses to the items provided for the basic stage of training (i.e., 22, 23, and 24), approximately 50% of the respondents expressed their positive attitudes towards the importance of the basic stage in complex methods of teaching TCs as a learner-centered approach to teaching.
The last items (i.e., 25 and 26) of the complex methods were provided to grasp the general perspectives of the participants towards the processes and properness of the methods, in response to which about 50% of the respondents believed that at the beginning of the basic stage of training, it is the teacher who should edit students’ translations; later on, the students were to edit one another’s translation, and finally, students should edit their own translations and read them aloud to the audience, which was considered as the most complicated task in TCs. Thus, the steps in acquisition may result in a better translation practice.
Also, investigating the processes applied in complex methods, more than 50% of the participants declared their positive attitudes towards the applicability and properness of training translation via complex methods. The summary of the participants’ responses to the items is shown in
Table 3. Summary of the Participants’ Responses to the Basic Items in Complex Methods
Frequency (%) Q25 1 10 (10.0) 2 43 (43.0) 3 32 (32.0) 4 12 (12.0) 5 3 (3.0) Q26 1 9 (9.0) 2 46 (46.0) 3 28 (28.0) 4 12 (12.0) 5 5 (5.0) 3.2.4. Items Data Analysis for the Minor Research Question 3
In order to answer the third question of the study, items 27, 28 and 29 were provided in the survey’s questionnaire focusing on the limitations imposed by the traditional methods and the contemporary views of modern methodologies in teaching TCs. Modern methods via ignoring the signs and symbols of a language put emphasis on other principles and statements for teaching. The issue was asked from the students by item 28, through which more than 50% of the respondents confirmed the existence of the claimed statements in modern methods. More than 50% of the respondents believed in the vital role of these methods in teaching TCs. The summary of the participants’ responses to the items is presented in
Table 4. Summary of the Participants’ Responses to the Items in Modern Methods
Frequency (%) Q27 1 8 (8.0) 2 48 (48.0) 3 23 (23.0) 4 17 (17.0) 5 4 (4.0) Q28 1 14 (14.0) 2 43 (43.0) 3 23 (23.0) 4 17 (17.0) 5 3 (3.0) Q29 1 14 (14.0) 2 46 (46.0) 3 24 (24.0) 4 13 (13.0) 5 3 (3.0) 3.2.5. Items Data Analysis for the Minor Research Question 4
The fourth minor research question of the study was proposed to find out the English-major students’ perceptions on the significance and justification of e-learning resources in methods of teaching TCs, for which a total of three (i.e., 29, 30 and 31) items were provided. These items focused on the students’ attitudes towards the role of e-learning resources in the three methods of teaching TCs. In this regard, more than 50% of the participants declared that e-learning resources were significant in applying all the three methods of teaching TCs. In other words, the respondents confirmed that the existence of e-learning resources is quite influential in the applicability of the methods and thus, they are beneficial in learning TCs.
The summary of the participants’ responses to the items is demonstrated in
Table 5. Summary of the Participants’ Responses to the Items on the Role of E-Learning Resources in the Methods
Frequency (%) Q30 1 8 (8.0) 2 48 (48.0) 3 23 (23.0) 4 17 (17.0) 5 4 (4.0) Q31 1 14 (14.0) 2 43 (43.0) 3 23 (23.0) 4 17 (17.0) 5 3 (3.0) Q32 1 14 (14.0) 2 46 (46.0) 3 24 (24.0) 4 13 (13.0) 5 3 (3.0)