Interdisciplinary Journal of Virtual Learning in Medical Sciences

Published by: Kowsar

Effect of Electronic and Lecture-Based Continuing Education Courses on Level of Knowledge of General Dentists on Dental Bleaching

Sedighe Sadat Hashemikamangar 1 , Mohammad Javad Kharazi Fard 2 , Nazanin Kiomarsi 3 , Mitra Zolfaghari 4 , Zahra Zinati 5 and Ladan Ranjbar Omrani 6 , *
Authors Information
1 MSc of Operative Dentistry, Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, International Campus, Tehran, IR Iran
2 PhD of Epidemiology, Dental Research Center Dental Research Institute, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3 MSc of Operative Dentistry, Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, International Campus, Tehran, IR Iran
4 PhD of E-learning, Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Department of E-learning in Medical Education, Virtual School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
5 Dentist, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
6 MSc of Operative Dentistry, Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Interdisciplinary Journal of Virtual Learning in Medical Sciences: March 2018, 9 (1); e11274
  • Published Online: February 24, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: March 2, 2017
  • Revised: January 24, 2018
  • Accepted: January 28, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijvlms.11274

To Cite: Hashemikamangar S S, Kharazi Fard M J, Kiomarsi N, Zolfaghari M, Zinati Z, et al. Effect of Electronic and Lecture-Based Continuing Education Courses on Level of Knowledge of General Dentists on Dental Bleaching, Interdiscip J Virtual Learn Med Sci. 2018 ; 9(1):e11274. doi: 10.5812/ijvlms.11274.

Copyright © 2018, Interdisciplinary Journal of Virtual Learning in Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion and Conclusion
  • 1. Bains M, Reynolds PA, McDonald F, Sherriff M. Effectiveness and acceptability of face-to-face, blended and e-learning: a randomised trial of orthodontic undergraduates. Eur J Dent Educ. 2011;15(2):110-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0579.2010.00651.x. [PubMed: 21492347].
  • 2. Bordji A, Imani M, Moradi A. The study of general practitioners’ views on the content of composed programs in Zahedan. Tabibe Shargh. 2004;6(2):145-51.
  • 3. Moattari M, Azizi F. Continuing medical education. J Shaheed Beheshti Univ Med Sci Health Serv. 1998;1(22):106-18. [in Persian].
  • 4. Zahed PY, Kanani JG. A survey on tile opinions of participators about cme in babol university of medical sciences 2000. Teb va Tazkieh J. 2001;11(42):18-23.
  • 5. Mersel A. Continuing education: obligation or duty? The European dilemma. Int Dent J. 2007;57(2):109-12. [PubMed: 17506470].
  • 6. Hosseini JSN. Revision in continuing medical education programms. Suppl 4th National Congress on Medical Education. J Tehran Faculty Med. 2000:153-4.
  • 7. Zolfaghari B, Yousefi AR, Adibi P. A look to five-year program of continuing medical education of physicians: teachers' and doctors' viewpoint. J Isfahan Med School. 1998;50(16):1-5.
  • 8. Leung WC. Competency based medical training: review. BMJ. 2002;325(7366):693-6. [PubMed: 12351364].
  • 9. Schleyer TK, Thyvalikakath TP, Spallek H, Dziabiak MP, Johnson LA. From information technology to informatics: the information revolution in dental education. J Dent Educ. 2012;76(1):142-53. [PubMed: 22262557].
  • 10. Potomkova J, Mihal V, Cihalik C. Web-based instruction and its impact on the learning activity of medical students: a review. Biomed Papers. 2006;150(2):357-61. doi: 10.5507/bp.2006.055.
  • 11. Hillenburg KL, Cederberg RA, Gray SA, Hurst CL, Johnson GK, Potter BJ. E-learning and the future of dental education: opinions of administrators and information technology specialists. Eur J Dent Educ. 2006;10(3):169-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0579.2006.00413.x. [PubMed: 16842592].
  • 12. Ruiz JG, Mintzer MJ, Leipzig RM. The impact of E-learning in medical education. Acad Med. 2006;81(3):207-12. [PubMed: 16501260].
  • 13. Gormley GJ, Collins K, Boohan M, Bickle IC, Stevenson M. Is there a place for e-learning in clinical skills? A survey of undergraduate medical students' experiences and attitudes. Med Teach. 2009;31(1):e6-12. doi: 10.1080/01421590802334317. [PubMed: 19253150].
  • 14. Mullaney TP, Duell RC, Smith TA, Blair HA. Programmed simulation of clinical endodontic problems. J Dent Educ. 1972;36(11):37-9. [PubMed: 4117493].
  • 15. Mattheos N, Schoonheim-Klein M, Walmsley AD, Chapple IL. Innovative educational methods and technologies applicable to continuing professional development in periodontology. Eur J Dent Educ. 2010;14 Suppl 1:43-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0579.2010.00624.x. [PubMed: 20415976].
  • 16. Pereira JA, Pleguezuelos E, Meri A, Molina-Ros A, Molina-Tomas MC, Masdeu C. Effectiveness of using blended learning strategies for teaching and learning human anatomy. Med Educ. 2007;41(2):189-95. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02672.x. [PubMed: 17269953].
  • 17. Levinson AJ, Weaver B, Garside S, McGinn H, Norman GR. Virtual reality and brain anatomy: a randomised trial of e-learning instructional designs. Med Educ. 2007;41(5):495-501. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02694.x. [PubMed: 17470079].
  • 18. Kavadella A, Tsiklakis K, Vougiouklakis G, Lionarakis A. Evaluation of a blended learning course for teaching oral radiology to undergraduate dental students. Eur J Dent Educ. 2012;16(1):e88-95. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0579.2011.00680.x. [PubMed: 22251359].
  • 19. Polydorou O, Hellwig E, Auschill TM. The effect of different bleaching agents on the surface texture of restorative materials. Oper Dent. 2006;31(4):473-80. doi: 10.2341/05-75. [PubMed: 16924988].
  • 20. Heymann HO, Swift Jr EJ, Ritter AV. Sturdevant's Art & Science of Operative Dentistry-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2014.
  • 21. Moazami F, Bahrampour E, Azar MR, Jahedi F, Moattari M. Comparing two methods of education (virtual versus traditional) on learning of Iranian dental students: a post-test only design study. BMC Med Educ. 2014;14:45. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-14-45. [PubMed: 24597923].
  • 22. Hugenholtz NI, de Croon EM, Smits PB, van Dijk FJ, Nieuwenhuijsen K. Effectiveness of e-learning in continuing medical education for occupational physicians. Occup Med (Lond). 2008;58(5):370-2. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqn053. [PubMed: 18495676].
  • 23. Nourian A, Nourian A, Ebnahmadi A, Akbarzadeh Bagheban A, Khoshnevisan MH. Comparison of E-learning and Traditional Classroom Instruction ofDental Public Health for Dental Students of Shahid Beheshti Dental School during 2010-2011. Shahid Beheshti Univ Dent J. 2012;30(3):174-83.
  • 24. Chumley JHS, Dobbie A, Cynthia A. Sound educational method orhype? a review of the evaluation professional dental education amongst general dental practitioners who attended the 26th Asia Pacific Dental Congress. 2006.
  • 25. Hewitt-Taylor J. Facilitating distance learning in nurse education. Nurse Educ Pract. 2003;3(1):23-9. [PubMed: 19036314].
  • 26. Choi H. A problem-based learning trial on the Internet involving undergraduate nursing students. J Nurs Educ. 2003;42(8):359-63. [PubMed: 12938898].
  • 27. Twomey A. Web-based teaching in nursing: lessons from the literature. Nurse Educ Today. 2004;24(6):452-8. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2004.04.010. [PubMed: 15312954].
  • 28. Buckley KM. Evaluation of classroom-based, Web-enhanced, and Web-based distance learning nutrition courses for undergraduate nursing. J Nurs Educ. 2003;42(8):367-70. [PubMed: 12938900].
  • 29. Billings DM, Connors HR, Skiba DJ. Benchmarking best practices in Web-based nursing courses. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2001;23(3):41-52. [PubMed: 11225049].
  • 30. Lycke KH, Grottum P, Stromso HI. Student learning strategies, mental models and learning outcomes in problem-based and traditional curricula in medicine. Med Teach. 2006;28(8):717-22. doi: 10.1080/01421590601105645. [PubMed: 17594584].
  • 31. Winning T, Townsend G. Problem-based learning in dental education: what's the evidence for and against...and is it worth the effort?. Aust Dent J. 2007;52(1):2-9. [PubMed: 17500157].
  • 32. MacDonald PJ. Integrating multimedia technology into continuing nursing education examining the effectiveness. 2011. Available from:
  • 33. De Muth JE, Bruskiewitz RH. A comparison of the acceptability and effectiveness of two methods of distance education: CD-ROM and audio teleconferencing. Am J Pharm Educ. 2006;70(1):11. [PubMed: 17136154].
  • 34. Mathur S, Stanton S, Reid WD. Canadian physical therapists' interest in web-based and computer-assisted continuing education. Phys Ther. 2005;85(3):226-37. [PubMed: 15733047].
  • 35. Zolfaghari M, Sarmadi MR, Negarandeh R, Zandi B, Ahmadi F. Attitudes of Nursing and Midwifery School's Faculty toward Blended E-learning at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Hayat. 2009;15(1).
  • 36. Hashemikamangar SS, Yazdanpanah F, Mirzaii M, Yazdani R, Karazifard MJ, Yasini E. Efficacy of E-Learning via the Website of Tehran University of Medical Sciences for Diagnosing Tooth Discolorations and Treatment Planning by Senior Dental Students. Acta Medica Iranica. 2016;54(8):536-41.
  • 37. Delavar A. Research methodology in psychology and education. Tehran: Virayesh Publication Institute; 2005.

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments